Marine microalgae are expected to solve the "post oil era" energy crisis editor's note: at present, marine experts based in Shandong have made preliminary achievements in the laboratory. The oil-rich microalgae have been cultivated with a maximum oil content of 68%, and biodiesel is produced on this basis. Some experts believe that the energy utilization of marine microalgae is expected to become a key to solve the energy crisis in the "post oil era"
it sounds ridiculous that seaweed can extract diesel oil, but this is by no means impossible. "Under the microscope, it is like an oil gourd. Its oil content is 7 to 8 times higher than that of rapeseed and peanut, and more than a dozen times higher than that of corn." Li Naisheng, deputy director of Shandong Provincial Department of science and technology and President of Shandong Institute of ocean engineering, said
at present, marine experts in Shandong have made preliminary achievements in the laboratory. The oil-rich microalgae cultivated have reached 68% of the maximum oil ratio, and biodiesel is produced on this basis. Some experts believe that the source utilization of marine microalgae in improving the quality of tail gas purification is expected to become a key to solving the energy crisis in the "post oil era"
it is understood that more than a dozen research groups in Shandong are engaged in microalgae research. Dozens of oil-rich algae species have been found, screened and cultivated, and genetic engineering technology has been used to transform algae species. Some technical forces are also conducting research on the preparation technology of microalgae biodiesel
14% of microalgae planted in saline alkali soil can meet half of the national oil demand
China has become an oil importer since 1993. Imported crude oil not only consumes a large amount of foreign exchange, but also mainly imports from the unstable Middle East region. Once an emergency occurs, it will reduce or interrupt the oil supply, which will seriously threaten national security and the development of the national economy
"considering from the strategic height of national development, finding renewable resources has become a top priority." Guan bin, a professor at Ocean University of China, believes that using algae biomass to produce liquid fuel has great potential to alleviate the three major crises of food, energy and environment faced by mankind, and has far-reaching significance for reducing the dependence on oil and ensuring national energy security
it is understood that marine algae account for 1/3 of China's organic carbon composition. Algae is a huge renewable resource and a potential resource for the production of biomass energy. Among them, micro algae have a very high oil content and can be used to produce biodiesel
Han Xiaotian, an expert from the Institute of Oceanography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that using microalgae to produce bioenergy has potential application prospects. Microalgae can effectively use solar energy, fix carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, and convert inorganic substances into energy substances such as hydrogen, highly unsaturated alkanes, Oils and fats; Moreover, microalgae bioenergy can be regenerated, and no toxic and harmful substances will be discharged after combustion, so there is no net increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide
"microalgae are one of the important renewable energy sources in the future." Pan Kehou, a professor at Ocean University of China, said that microalgae are rich in germplasm resources and will not damage the ecosystem due to harvest. They can be cultivated in large quantities without occupying cultivated land; In addition, it has high photosynthetic efficiency, short growth cycle and doubling time of about 3 to 5 days. Some algae species can even harvest two seasons a day, and the annual yield per unit area is dozens or even hundreds of times that of grain. Moreover, the content of microalgae lipids is 20% to 70%, which is far from that of terrestrial plants. It can be used to produce biodiesel or ethanol, and is expected to become a new way to produce hydrogen
the oil production efficiency of microalgae is quite high. During the growth period of one year, one hectare of corn can produce 172 liters of biomass fuel, one hectare of soybeans can produce 446 liters, one hectare of rapeseed can produce 1190 liters, one hectare of palm trees can produce 5950 liters, and one hectare of microalgae can produce 95000 liters of biomass fuel
according to experts, microalgae are small, with low lignin content, and are easy to be crushed and dried. The treatment and processing conditions required for producing liquid fuel with microalgae are relatively low, and the production cost is low. Moreover, the calorific value of biomass fuel from microalgae pyrolysis is high, with an average of 33mj/kg, which is 1.6 times that of wood or crop straw
pankehou said that microalgae can also use waste carbon dioxide in the growth process, which is combined with the treatment and emission reduction of carbon dioxide. Foreign countries have tried to produce microalgae from waste carbon dioxide emitted by power plants, and the algae farm covering an area of 1 square kilometer can process 50000 tons of carbon dioxide a year
Guo Rongbo, head of the biological hydrogen production team of Qingdao Institute of bioenergy and process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that microalgae have higher light energy conversion efficiency than plants. It is estimated that microalgae biomass production can reach 300 times that of terrestrial plants. Moreover, microalgae have strong adaptability to growth. Sea water and fresh water can be cultivated. Microalgae farms can be located in any place, and can be cultivated in saline alkali land, sticky land, beaches, shallow seas and lakes. They do not compete with grain for land and people for food. "China's saline alkali land covers an area of 150million mu. If 14% of the saline alkali land is planted with microalgae, under the condition of mature technology, the amount of diesel produced can meet 50% of the national oil demand."
experts believe that this feature is particularly important in the production and processing stage in China. The technology of fermentation of dried potatoes, corn and other alcohol production has been relatively mature, but each ton of alcohol production requires 3 tons of grain as raw materials. If 10 million tons of alcohol are produced every year, 30 million tons of corn will be needed, which is larger than the annual output of Jilin, China's corn production base. With the continuous reduction of available land, food supply has increasingly become a major problem affecting human survival all over the world. If tens of millions of tons of alcohol are produced every year, it is obviously impossible to use food as raw materials, and using microalgae to produce alcohol and biodiesel is obviously "killing the birds with one stone"
microalgae oil production has attracted the attention of Japan and the United States
the United States has started microalgae energy research since 1976 to study the production of high-fat microalgae from waste gas generated by fossil fuels. This plan was suspended in 1996 because of the reduction of research funds and the high cost of algae oil production. However, scientists in the United States have cultivated oil-rich engineering Chlorella. Under laboratory conditions, the lipid content of this kind of algae can reach more than 60% (the content of lipid PC, POM, polyester (mainly PBT) and polyphenylene oxide (PPO) of microalgae in natural state is increased by 3 to 12 times), and outdoor production can also increase to more than 40%. This provides a solid foundation for future research
in November, 2006, American green energy technology company and Arizona public service company established a commercial system in Arizona that can be connected with the flue gas of 1040 MW power plant. They successfully used the carbon dioxide of the flue gas to synthesize and cultivate microalgae on a large scale, and transformed microalgae into biological "crude oil", with a yield of 5000 to 10000 gallons of biodiesel and a considerable amount of bioethanol per acre per year
in 2007, led by the US Department of energy's Sandia National Laboratory, a coalition of more than a dozen laboratories and hundreds of scientists in the United States announced the "mini Manhattan plan" supported by the national energy administration, which plans to realize the industrialization of microalgae to produce biodiesel in 2010. The U.S. Energy Administration plans to reduce the cost of microalgae oil production to $2 to $3/gallon in 2015 on the premise of comprehensive progress in various technologies
in March 2007 (3) with the diversification of the experimental system, an Israeli company demonstrated the technology of using algae to absorb carbon dioxide and convert solar energy into biomass energy. Algae were cultivated in a large scale in the runway pool hundreds of meters away from the chimney of the power plant and converted into fuel. Every 5 kilograms of algae can produce 1 liter of fuel